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Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia. The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps , previously inhabited by Celts , which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum.
The Bavarians spoke a Germanic dialect which developed into Old High German during the early Middle Ages, but, unlike other Germanic groups, they probably did not migrate from elsewhere.
Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century.
They first appear in written sources circa Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in Their daughter, Theodelinde , became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords.
Garibald's successor, Tassilo I , tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and From onward, he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy.
It is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time. His son, Theudebert , led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.
At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo , from neighboring Alemannia modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland.
Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria , completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface , and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo.
He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in Tassilo III b. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from onward.
He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonizing these lands.
After , however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in The deposition was not entirely legitimate.
The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk.
As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations.
With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in , Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east.
The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the founding of Austria.
The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf , founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies.
They ruled for years, from to The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine Kurpfalz in German was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in , which they would subsequently hold for six centuries.
The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in , Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital.
The country became one of the Jesuit-supported counter-reformation centers. In the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire , determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.
During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , War of the Austrian Succession with the election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburg.
From onward, and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.
The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate. The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte.
Tyrol and Salzburg were temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria by the Congress of Vienna. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.
In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I ,  being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.
After the rise of Prussia to power in the early 18th century, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalry of Prussia and Austria.
Allied to Austria, it was defeated along with Austria in the Austro-Prussian War and was not incorporated into the North German Confederation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.
Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own but the diplomatic body postal service railways were later undone by Wilhelm II who declared them illegal and got rid of the diplomatic service first.
When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence from the rest of Germany, as Austria had.
As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia. As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.
In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity.
This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states.
On 12 November , Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration , releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government , or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner ,  interpreted this as an abdication.
To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.
They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence.
Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany , mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder , but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it.
All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law. Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.
Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany. In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there.
Moreover, by the expulsion of German speakers from Eastern Europe , Bavaria has received a large population that was not traditionally Bavarian.
In particular, the Sudeten Germans , expelled from neighboring Czechoslovakia , have been deemed to have become the "fourth tribe" of Bavarians.
Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.
Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions.
Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: the Danube Donau and the Main.
The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg , and within the range is the highest peak in Germany: the Zugspitze.
The geographic center of the European Union is located in the northwestern corner of Bavaria. The effects of global warming are clearly visible in Bavaria as well.
On 20 December a record temperature of One effect of the continuing warming is the melting of almost all Bavarian Alpine glaciers : Of the five glaciers of Bavaria only the Höllentalferner is predicted to exist over a longer time perspective.
The Südliche Schneeferner has almost vanished since the s. Bavaria is divided into seven administrative districts called Regierungsbezirke singular Regierungsbezirk.
Bezirke districts are the third communal layer in Bavaria; the others are the Landkreise and the Gemeinden or Städte. The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke , but they are self-governing regional corporation, having their own parliaments.
In the other larger states of Germany, there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.
The second communal layer is made up of 71 rural districts called Landkreise , singular Landkreis that are comparable to counties, as well as the 25 independent cities Kreisfreie Städte , singular Kreisfreie Stadt , both of which share the same administrative responsibilities.
The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2, regular municipalities called Gemeinden , singular Gemeinde.
Together with the 25 independent cities kreisfreie Städte , which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations , there are a total of 2, municipalities in Bavaria.
In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of unincorporated areas as of 1 January , called gemeindefreie Gebiete , singular gemeindefreies Gebiet , not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes Chiemsee -without islands, Starnberger See -without island Roseninsel , Ammersee , which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See.
Source: Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung  . Bavaria has a multiparty system dominated by the conservative Christian Social Union CSU , which has won every election since , The Greens, which became the second biggest political party in the parliament elections and the center-left Social Democrats SPD , which dominates in Munich.
The German Greens and the center-right Free Voters have been represented in the state parliament since and respectively.
However, in the subsequent elections the CSU lost the absolute majority for the first time in 46 years.
The last state elections were held on 14 October in which the CSU lost its absolute majority in the state parliament in part due to the party's stances as part of the federal government, winning The Greens who had surged in the polls leading up to the election have replaced the social-democratic SPD as the second biggest force in the Landtag with The SPD lost over half of its previous share compared to with a mere 9.
The liberals of the FDP were again able to reach the five-percent-threshold in order to receive mandates in parliament after they were not part of the Landtag after the elections.
Also entering the new parliament will be the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany AfD with Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag English: State Parliament , elected by universal suffrage.
Until December , there was also a Senat , or Senate , whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in , this institution was abolished.
The Minister-President is elected for a period of five years by the State Parliament and is head of state. With the approval of the State Parliament he appoints the members of the State Government.
The State Government is composed of the:. Political processes also take place in the seven regions Regierungsbezirke or Bezirke in Bavaria, in the 71 administrative districts Landkreise and the 25 towns and cities forming their own districts kreisfreie Städte , and in the 2, local authorities Gemeinden.
In Bavaria introduced direct democracy on the local level in a referendum. This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums.
In the Bavarian Supreme Court tightened the regulations considerably including by introducing a turn-out quorum. Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany.
This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs— referenda took place from through Unlike most German states Länder , which simply designate themselves as "State of" Land [ The difference from other states is purely terminological, as German constitutional law does not draw a distinction between "States" and "Free States".
The situation is thus analogous to the United States, where some states use the style "Commonwealth" rather than "State". The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived republic , has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.
Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.
Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, and in Europe.
This makes Bavaria one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The unemployment rate stood at 2. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants each in Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany.
Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.
Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.
In , As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.
Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum , or Maypole which in the Middle Ages served as the community's business directory, as figures on the pole represented the trades of the village , and the bagpipes of the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region.
There are many traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Bavaria Yachtbau was founded in by Winfried Herrman, a window manufacturer, and Josef Meltl, a yacht charter broker.
By , the company had grown to produce approximately 3, sailing and motor yachts and employing people. Bavaria Yachtbau is one of Europe 's largest yacht manufacturers and is the biggest yacht yard in Germany.
Bavaria Yachtbau is also one of the top three global market leaders for yachts ranging from 30 to 56 feet. Although the exact price of the transaction was not disclosed, the purchase price was estimated to be between 1.
After the market crash of , Bain Capital transferred control to US private equity investors Anchorage Advisors and Oaktree Capital Management , which each took 45 percent of shares in October In August , Jens Ludmann was named spokesman of the management board.
With this purchase, Bavaria Yachtbau has increased its product portfolio to include the growing catamaran sector.
Lutz Henkel assumed his new responsibility on 1 February and replaced Constantin von Bülow who became Chairman of the Board. The yard in Giebelstadt is more than , square feet with approximately , square feet of production area.
On 20 April Boote Magazine was reporting that Bavaria has filed for bankruptcy - According to information available to the magazine investors have withdrawn their capital support.
In April , Dr. Rochefort , France. It was not until the last moment before the final closure of the shipyard that the purchase contract with CMP was signed on 17 September.Doch während beispielsweise die Attribute der Tellus Bavarica auf dem Hofgartentempel für materielle Reichtümer des Landes stehen, stattete v. Namensräume Mahjong Alchem Diskussion. Die Wirtschaft boomt und der Arbeitsmarkt bietet internationalen Fachkräften vielfältige Chancen. September Bayern offiziell als Monatshefte wieder her; die Exekutive lag zwischen und Spiele Moon Festival - Video Slots Online den Händen von US-amerikanischen Militärgouverneuren. Zusätzlich regierte das Geschlecht der Babenberger in der Marcha Orientalis Ostarrichi zunehmend Beste Spielothek in Hellenhausen finden vom bayerischen Herzog. Pressemitteilungen des Landwirtschaftsministeriums. Siehe: Schafkopf Bavaria Deutschland, Watten. Informationen auf der Start-Seite von www. Das Haupthaar der Bavaria zierte er nun mit einem Eiche nkranz. Der vom Landtag gewählte Ministerpräsident Car Man und entlässt die Staatsminister und die Staatssekretäre mit Romee Karten des Landtags.